The Federal Highways Authority (FHWA) Approved LEDlineŽ as a Raised Pavement Marker (RPM) per the Manuel of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD):
Pedestrian Crossing (crosswalks):For drivers, when placed on either sides of a crosswalk, the system could be used to highlight the crossing and more importantly, from a distance, should highlight any pedestrians using the crossing. With the semi-directional LEDlineDVTM on either side facing in towards the crossing, the system would side lighting any pedestrians using the crossing. How brightly or uniformly lit they would be, depends on the number of units installed.
Wanting to improve pedestrian crossing (crosswalk) safety, the US FHWA is presently testing LEDlineŽ to highlight pedestrian crossings at night, and light up anyone using the crossing from the side, so motorists from a distance can see that the crossing is in use.
LEDlineŽ is Snowploughable and Melts Snow: The snow plough pictures taken 16th December 2007 of the Ontario Canada 403 freeway LEDlineŽ in-pavement application, demonstrates that the system melts snow, as it was the only pavement marking system visible and if it did not melt the snow at the rate the sleet / snow was coming down it would have been covered in seconds. (Please see the pictures and / or video of the Rt.403 installation and turn up the volume to hear how hard the sleet was coming down).
Earlier Type LEDlineŽ FHWA Survivability Tests 2012
FHWA Road Survivability Test as per the FHWA Report:
LEDline® FHWA Survivability Tests2012
The FHWA had some basic survivability tests for 18 solar powered road studs being sold in the USA and LEDline®, to see if the products could provide sufficient light with their solar power collection array / strip and battery, as well as testing some of the parameters for their survivability in the middle of the road. LEDline® and only 1 of the 18 road studs passed these tests.
LEDline® was included within the tests as LEDline® can be powered by mains or via solar power and batteries. However, our solar arrays and batteries are commercial arrays and batteries and they are positioned off at the side of the road, not in the middle of the road with the LEDline®. As such, our solar arrays and batteries are not restricted as to their size, the amount of power they can generate, or the amount of battery capacity to store the power, so LEDline® has far more embedded LED lights within it, so can easily provide the required “minimum luminous intensity value of 1 cd”. (The FHWA tested one of our yellow, 6 x embedded LED lights, easily making the minimum 1 cd. Note: This is not a lot of light, especially as even the 6 x embedded LED systems can be seen in daylight and our 12 x embedded LED lights are sunlight visible; so we have more than enough light!)
We believe that these FHWA tests were being minimal, since they did not test for;
snow plough ability, (anything sticking above the pavement in Northern climates like Canada, will be hit by steel snow plough blades scraping along the pavement and will not survive unless they are armoured like the typical 12" (30cm) diameter airfield in-pavement lights. And, despite being installed some 12" - 18" (30cm -46cm) into the pavement, even these types of lights are frequently destroyed when a snow plough blade momentarily catches them, as there is far too much momentum to resist such a blade. Our lights are positioned below the pavement surface so don’t oppose the snow ploughs at all, and thus survive.),
temperatures of -85oFahrenheit (–65Co)
water depths greater than 1” (25.4mm), (Note: previous generations of LEDline® have been tested by the Canadian Navy to seawater depths of approx. 1000 ft. (+300m) and even our all plastic non-corrosive locking disconnect connector, which connects the LEDline® to its sealed induction, non-contact power pick up connector, is rated IP68 (tested to 65ft (20m) seawater depths for 6 weeks).
In addition, although there was a Lens Impact strength test (ASTM D4280 2008); which LEDline® easily passed, there was no substantial sudden impact test. HIL-Tech routinely takes a steel pointed brick hammer, (used for breaking brick and concrete in construction), to trade shows, or when it is demonstrating its product, and challenges viewers to hit LEDline® as hard as they can to see if they can break the plastic. We estimate that someone hitting the LEDline® plastic lens, with the pointed end of the steel hammer, is providing a sudden impact force of around 20,000 lbs. per Sq inch. Not only can they not break the plastic, but it is even difficult to see a mark where they hit it. This always impresses the engineers who understand just how tough such a test is. That’s why LEDline® is the toughest light source in the world!
Three of the FHWA tests were for strength.
ASTM D4280 2008 Longitudinal Strength Test; LEDline® had two metal supports under the road studs, placed some 2” (50mm) apart then had a compression test performed on them to see if they survived. When they tested LEDline®, however, instead of duplicating the 2” (50mm) spacing, so that everyone was tested equally, they placed the metal supports at either end of the LEDline®, some 21.5” (546mm) apart, so that when the compression test focussed some 1050 lbs. force on to the middle of the LEDline®, having no support, it bent some 1.9” (48.3mm), so it looked like a banana. LEDline® passed the ASTM D4280 2008 test as the LEDline® continued to work normally! However, obviously LEDline® is not designed or meant to bridge anything, so this was a much more severe test compared to everyone else's. Please take a look at the enclosed pictures, which shows the test set up, and the enclosed pictures of the lit banana shaped LEDline®.
The compressive strength test; was also impressive, as they used the same machine to put some 89,000 lbs. force on to the LEDline®, which again passed successfully, so you can be sure that the LEDline® is very tough. (Please see enclosed picture #5.)
ASTM D4280 2008 Lens Impact Strength Test With 1 Sample Tested 17 Times at 3% RH and 55C (130F): The LEDline®, after reaching a temperature of 55C (130F), one (1) hour in a convection oven, was placed on a concrete floor and held horizontal. Whilst at elevated temperatures, a 0.19 kg (0.42 lb) dart fitted with a 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) radius semi-spherical head to drop 475 mm (18 in.) perpendicularly onto the approximate centre of the reflective surface. ASTM D4280 2008 test, LEDline® passed with no visible damage.
Light Maintenance Extreme Temperature Test: Sample at -20C for 8 hours light readings taken. Sample at +65C for 8 hours, light readings taken.LEDline® maintained functionality during extreme temperatures.
All photos video and text are copyright HIL-Tech Ltd. Some of the enclosed video and pictures are from others like Channel 9 WIXT Syracuse; Stewart McIntosh; C. Rufenacht; MacDonald Laidlaw PM and Kevin Oliphant;Bond Air Services and the FHWA, Bruce Lamosky and Arnold Chase (with many thanks). HIL-Tech LTD has permission to use them, however, these video and pictures are similarly copyrighted to the original people who took them. Those wishing to use them should contact HIL-Tech Ltd, who will then get written permission for you to use them from the originators.